Allele — A form of a gene. A gene actually consists of two forms, one on the chromosome
that came from the father, the other on the chromosome given by the mother.
Aneuploidy — Having extra or missing chromosomes.
Chromosome — A very long piece of DNA coiled around some proteins. Each chromosome
is a separate strand of DNA.
DNA— A very long chemical that can coil up to form a structure known as a chromosome.
Dominant Allele — An allele that almost always results in a specific trait, even if the person possesses only one copy
Gene — A segment of a strand of DNA that codes for how to make a particular molecule.
The molecules it produces will result in a particular trait. Different genes have different
Genotype — The genetic identity of an individual
Heterozygous — Having two alleles (forms of the gene) that are different.
Homozygous — Having two alleles (forms of the gene) that are identical.
Locus — The location on the chromosome where the gene can be found. The plural of locus
Meiosis — The type of cell division that produces cells with half the number of chromosomes
than the original cell. This is the process that creates sperm and egg cells.
Non-disjunction — An error in the process of chromosome sorting during cell division.
Pedigree — A pictorial representation of a family's health history
Punnet Square — A tool used to predict the genetic outcome of a mating
Recessive Allele — An allele that only results in a specific trait if the person possesses two copies of the recessive allele